Statistics show that 99% of cancer patients in developing countries are dying with untreated pain. According to an African proverb, “It takes a village to raise a child”. Similarly it will take the whole continent to control cancer in Africa.
Cancer rates continue to increase worldwide, as do deaths due to the disease. In particular, breast cancer is increasing worldwide, according to the latest data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO).
The IARC findings are from GLOBOCAN 2012, the new version of IARCs online database. It provides the most up-to-date estimates for 28 types of cancer in 184 countries worldwide, as well as offering a comprehensive overview of the global cancer burden.
The data show that in 2012, there were an estimated 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths.
These data represent a rise in rates from 2008, when there were 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million related deaths.
Breast cancer is now the common cause of cancer-related death among women (522,000 deaths in 2012), and it is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in 140 of 184 countries represented in this database.
“Breast cancer is also a leading cause of cancer death in the less developed countries of the world,” said David Forman, PhD, FFPHM, head of the IARC Section of Cancer Information, in a statement. “This is partly because a shift in lifestyles is causing an increase in incidence and partly because clinical advances to combat the disease are not reaching women living in these regions.”
GLOBOCAN reports that more than half (57%, n = 8 million) of new cancer cases and nearly two thirds of related deaths (65%, n = 5.3 million) occurred in the less developed regions of the world.
The report notes that many developing countries are going through rapid societal and economic changes, and there is a shift toward lifestyles representative of industrialized countries. These factors, along with changes in reproductive, dietary, and hormonal risk factors, are contributing to the rising cancer rates. However, even though incidence rates of breast cancer are still highest in more developed nations, mortality is greater in less developed countries, owing to lack of access to treatment as well as early detection of the disease.
“An urgent need in cancer control today is to develop effective and affordable approaches to the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer among women living in less developed countries,” said Christopher Wild, PhD, director of IARC, in a statement. “It is critical to bring morbidity and mortality in line with progress made in recent years in more developed parts of the world.”
The incidence of cervical cancer has declined dramatically in the industrialized world, thanks to the wide availability of screening, but that has not been the case in developing nations. There are more than half a million new cases every year, and cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women globally, after breast, colorectal, and lung cancers, and it is the fourth most common cause of cancer death.
Of note is that in sub-Saharan Africa, there are 34.8 new cases diagnosed per 100,000 women annually, with 22.5 per 100,000 dying from the disease.
“These findings bring into sharp focus the need to implement the tools already available for cervical cancer, notably HPV [human papillomavirus] vaccination combined with well-organized national programs for screening and treatment,” said Dr. Wild.
The report also found that globally, the overall age-standardized cancer incidence rate is almost 25% higher in men than in women, with rates of 205 per 100,000 for men and 165 per 100,000 for women. These incidence rates for men, however, vary substantially, with an almost five-fold range across the different regions of the world. For mortality, there is less regional variability than for incidence, with rates being 15% higher in more developed regions than in less developed regions in men, and 8% higher in women.
The report also projected a “substantive” increase by 2025, to 19.3 million new cancer cases per year, primarily attributable to growth and ageing of the global population. The developing world will continue to experience a rise in the disease burden and related mortality.
GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr.
Cancer constitutes a major challenge to development, undermining social and economic advances throughout the world. More than 36 million people worldwide die of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) every year, with nearly 8 million of them dying from cancer.
This infographic focuses on the increasing cancer burden in developing and developed nations. It also highlights the disproportionate funding allocated to address these staggering statistics and steps you can take to advocate for change today.
Africa is now facing a major public health challenge relative to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), especially cancer, while still dealing with the challenges of infectious diseases.
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